YaYa 2.0 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw 楊奕農的 YaYa 站 (全新 since 2017)! Fri, 21 Jul 2017 15:49:35 +0000 zh-TW hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.8 132649312 不起眼的微生物,神奇用途令你大開眼界──《BBC 知識》 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/21/%e4%b8%8d%e8%b5%b7%e7%9c%bc%e7%9a%84%e5%be%ae%e7%94%9f%e7%89%a9%ef%bc%8c%e7%a5%9e%e5%a5%87%e7%94%a8%e9%80%94%e4%bb%a4%e4%bd%a0%e5%a4%a7%e9%96%8b%e7%9c%bc%e7%95%8c%e2%94%80%e2%94%80%e3%80%8abbc-2/ http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/21/%e4%b8%8d%e8%b5%b7%e7%9c%bc%e7%9a%84%e5%be%ae%e7%94%9f%e7%89%a9%ef%bc%8c%e7%a5%9e%e5%a5%87%e7%94%a8%e9%80%94%e4%bb%a4%e4%bd%a0%e5%a4%a7%e9%96%8b%e7%9c%bc%e7%95%8c%e2%94%80%e2%94%80%e3%80%8abbc-2/#respond Fri, 21 Jul 2017 04:39:39 +0000 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/?p=904 提到「細菌」,食品中毒與不愉快的生病回憶也許會浮現腦海。然而科學家發現,微生物的功用遠大於讓我們肚子痛⋯⋯。

YNY:科技總是帶來新商機…

地雷再見!細菌成為超強探測器英國愛丁堡大學的科學家研發出無害的基因改造大腸桿菌品系,一旦接觸特定爆炸物,便會發出綠色螢光。研究人員希望能把這些細菌投擲到可能埋藏地雷的地點,取代尋找地雷的金屬探測器或偵測犬…

http://flip.it/30kyGj

• 文/湯姆.艾爾蘭(Tom Ireland)|皇家生物協會《生物學家》雜誌(The Biologist)編輯主任。 • 譯/林云也|美國伊利諾理工學院食品安全與科技碩士,台灣大學農藝系學士。

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開啟你對學術「研究」的認識 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/19/%e9%96%8b%e5%95%9f%e4%bd%a0%e5%b0%8d%e5%ad%b8%e8%a1%93%e3%80%8c%e7%a0%94%e7%a9%b6%e3%80%8d%e7%9a%84%e8%aa%8d%e8%ad%98/ http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/19/%e9%96%8b%e5%95%9f%e4%bd%a0%e5%b0%8d%e5%ad%b8%e8%a1%93%e3%80%8c%e7%a0%94%e7%a9%b6%e3%80%8d%e7%9a%84%e8%aa%8d%e8%ad%98/#respond Wed, 19 Jul 2017 15:19:51 +0000 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/?p=899
  • 一些經濟學家的經驗故事: 李龍飛
  • 研究方法是什麼 by Hal Varian?
  • 一切都是誘因的問題!
  • 研究方法是什麼 by 張真誠?
  • 2014 諾貝爾經濟學獎: Jean Tirole (提羅里)
  • 佃農理論的前因後果: 張五常
  • 一些經濟學家的經驗故事
  • 研究方法是什麼 by 楊奕農?
  • 時間數列計量經濟學的復興
  • 如何寫學術論文、報告
  •  

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    伊康寓言 (Econ Fables) http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/19/%e4%bc%8a%e5%ba%b7%e5%af%93%e8%a8%80-econ-fables/ http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/19/%e4%bc%8a%e5%ba%b7%e5%af%93%e8%a8%80-econ-fables/#respond Wed, 19 Jul 2017 15:15:14 +0000 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/?p=897
  • 6. 有關迴歸線性關係 (linear relationship) 的笑話 (2010/07/28)
  • 3. 反對軟體盜版和燒錄器 (2002/5/20)
  • 2. 經濟學教授和他的妻子 (2002/5/20)
  • 1. 理性預期和地上的千元大鈔 (2002/5/19)
  • 5. 口蹄疫和牛肉促銷 (2002/10/29)
  • 4. 肉雞與大象 (2002/5/20)
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    BBC 中文網 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/19/884/ http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/19/884/#respond Wed, 19 Jul 2017 13:37:44 +0000 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/?p=884
  • 籠中格斗男孩視頻引發中國孤兒問題辯論
  • 中印邊境對峙會走向何方?
  • 記者來鴻:香港年輕一代雙重蝸居?
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  • 英超亞洲杯:亞洲球迷最喜歡英超哪方面?
  • 害怕被引渡回中國的埃及維吾爾人
  • 圖輯:搖滾樂隊「林肯公園」主唱貝寧頓
  • 英媒頭條:英脫歐後4年內歐盟公民可自由流動
  • 最大健康殺手 九種習慣幫你減少「癡呆」風險
  • 「bcc 中文」的圖片搜尋結果

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    天下雜誌:兩岸全球 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/19/%e5%a4%a9%e4%b8%8b%e9%9b%9c%e8%aa%8c%e5%85%a9%e5%b2%b8%e5%85%a8%e7%90%83/ http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/19/%e5%a4%a9%e4%b8%8b%e9%9b%9c%e8%aa%8c%e5%85%a9%e5%b2%b8%e5%85%a8%e7%90%83/#respond Wed, 19 Jul 2017 13:25:36 +0000 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/?p=877
  • 陸客來台人次增加,為何旅行業仍要上街頭?
  • 通縮再現? 日本食品家用品變便宜
  • 台灣奪下全球最宜居住地 台灣贏在哪裡?
  • 中國用辦奧運的熱情辦G20高峰會
  • 精通中、英、越文 大銀行都搶著要他
  • 東協,我來了!
  • 韓國霧霾問題加劇 中國害的?
  • 新加坡本土茲卡病毒 暴增至41例
  • 韓國霧霾問題加劇 中國害的?
  • 葉倫迂迴說今年會升息 但還得看9月的那份報告
  • https://i2.wp.com/cw1.tw/CW/images/Photo/C1304257981835.jpg?w=620

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    商周:矽谷台灣幫 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/19/%e5%95%86%e5%91%a8%ef%bc%9a%e7%9f%bd%e8%b0%b7%e5%8f%b0%e7%81%a3%e5%b9%ab/ http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/19/%e5%95%86%e5%91%a8%ef%bc%9a%e7%9f%bd%e8%b0%b7%e5%8f%b0%e7%81%a3%e5%b9%ab/#respond Wed, 19 Jul 2017 12:50:18 +0000 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/?p=866 商業周刊 – 2017年7月19日
     https://i0.wp.com/ibw.bwnet.com.tw/image/cover/240x320/0000001549.jpg?w=620
    當台灣政府力推「亞洲.矽谷」計畫,深圳、香港、新加坡全力拚轉型為亞洲矽谷之時,去年底,《商業周刊》採訪團隊便發現,在美國矽谷,有一群新一代台灣勢力正在發光發熱。當他們知道,《商業周刊》的約訪是為了替台灣年輕人尋找新出路,他們二話不說馬上答應..
    這群「矽谷台灣幫」,他們腦袋內的創意共創辦了近二十家公司,他們手上的公司已經賣出的價格超過新台幣一千億元。 …
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    經濟實驗文獻 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/16/%e7%b6%93%e6%bf%9f%e5%af%a6%e9%a9%97%e6%96%87%e7%8d%bb/ http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/16/%e7%b6%93%e6%bf%9f%e5%af%a6%e9%a9%97%e6%96%87%e7%8d%bb/#respond Sun, 16 Jul 2017 07:13:46 +0000 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/?p=796 我最近整理的「經濟實驗」相關文獻在這裡: @https://yinung.wordpress.com/

    弗農·史密斯 (Vernon L. Smith)

     

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    人工智慧改變「聰明」的定義 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/16/%e4%ba%ba%e5%b7%a5%e6%99%ba%e6%85%a7%e6%94%b9%e8%ae%8a%e3%80%8c%e8%81%b0%e6%98%8e%e3%80%8d%e7%9a%84%e5%ae%9a%e7%be%a9/ http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/16/%e4%ba%ba%e5%b7%a5%e6%99%ba%e6%85%a7%e6%94%b9%e8%ae%8a%e3%80%8c%e8%81%b0%e6%98%8e%e3%80%8d%e7%9a%84%e5%ae%9a%e7%be%a9/#respond Sun, 16 Jul 2017 02:55:22 +0000 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/?p=753 yny: 這和 k-level thinking 有關, 如果機器人和一群人一起參加 (例如唐朝的) 選美比賽,機器人會猜對哪一種美會獲勝嗎?

    來源:哈佛商業評論2017年7月號(川普讓世界不再是平的?)

    以後,聰明都會與情緒智慧有關。

    人工智慧專家吳恩達(Andrew Ng)把人工智慧比作電力,因為它將為我們帶來重大變化,就像電力對我們祖先的影響一樣。我只能猜測,電力對我們祖先來說,是神祕、可怕,甚至是令人震驚的,就像人工智慧將會帶給許多人的感受一樣。可靠的科學家與研究機構預測,未來美國服務業與專業工作的自動化,可能是目前自動化的製造業工作數量的十倍以上。這種可能性非常驚人。

    那麼,現在我們能做些什麼,為嶄新的工作領域做好準備?人工智慧將是遠比任何人類都強大的競爭對手,因此我們若要保住工作,勢必會陷入一場狂亂的競爭。這會需要我們大大提高認知與情感技能的水準。

    許多專家認為,仍然必須由人類來從事需要較高層次的批判性、創意與創新性思考的工作,以及需要投入大量情感,以滿足其他人需求的工作。許多人遇到的挑戰是,我們並不是因為天生的認知與情感傾向,而擅長那些技能:我們是尋求肯定的(confirmation-seeking)思考者,以及尋求自我肯定的(ego-affirmation-seeking)防禦型推理者。我們必須克服這些傾向,才能大幅提高思考、聆聽、建立關聯與協同工作的技能水準。

    我認為這個升級過程,首先應改變我們對「聰明」的定義。到目前為止,許多人從早年入學開始,是根據成績與考試得分來衡量聰明程度,在這方面顯得比其他人「聰明」而獲得成功。聰明的人是那些犯錯最少,因而得分最高的人。

    人工智慧會改變這一點,因為沒有人會比IBM的華生(Watson)之類的人工智慧更聰明,至少在沒有強化(augmentation)的情況下是如此。在處理、儲存和回想資訊方面,聰明的機器比人類做得更快、更好。此外,人工智慧能較快進行模式比對(pattern-match),提出的不同方案也比人類廣泛得多。人工智慧甚至能學得更快。在聰明機器時代,我們對聰明的舊定義,已經不再合理。

    我們需要的,是對「聰明」的新定義,可以提升人類思考與情感投入的水準。判斷聰明與否的新方式,不是根據你知道什麼或如何知道,而是根據你思考、聆聽、建立關聯、協作和學習的品質。數量被品質取代。這種轉變,會讓我們著重努力大幅提高認知與情感技能水準。

    我們會花費更多時間,去訓練培養開放的心態,並學習根據新資料來更新我們的信念。我們會練習在犯錯之後進行調整,並將投入更多時間與精力,在傳統上與情緒智慧有關的技能。新的「聰明」講求的,是努力克服妨礙深度思考與團隊合作的兩大障礙:我們的自我意識,以及我們的恐懼。這麼一來,會較容易認清真正的現實情況,而不是我們想要的現實情況。總之,我們會欣然接受謙遜。這就是我們人類在聰明技術世界中增添價值之道。(侯秀琴譯)

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    Jeff Bezos為2010年普林斯頓大學畢業生演講 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/16/jeff-bezos%e7%82%ba2010%e5%b9%b4%e6%99%ae%e6%9e%97%e6%96%af%e9%a0%93%e5%a4%a7%e5%ad%b8%e7%95%a2%e6%a5%ad%e7%94%9f%e6%bc%94%e8%ac%9b/ http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/16/jeff-bezos%e7%82%ba2010%e5%b9%b4%e6%99%ae%e6%9e%97%e6%96%af%e9%a0%93%e5%a4%a7%e5%ad%b8%e7%95%a2%e6%a5%ad%e7%94%9f%e6%bc%94%e8%ac%9b/#respond Sun, 16 Jul 2017 02:05:22 +0000 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/?p=713 Jeff Bezos 2010 Commencement Speech at Princeton University

    As a kid, I spent my summers with my grandparents on their ranch in Texas. I helped fix windmills, vaccinate cattle, and do other chores. We also watched soap operas every afternoon, especially “Days of our Lives.” My grandparents belonged to a Caravan Club, a group of Airstream trailer owners who travel together around the U.S. and Canada. And every few summers, we’d join the caravan. We’d hitch up the Airstream trailer to my grandfather’s car, and off we’d go, in a line with 300 other Airstream adventurers. I loved and worshipped my grandparents and I really looked forward to these trips. On one particular trip, I was about 10 years old. I was rolling around in the big bench seat in the back of the car. My grandfather was driving. And my grandmother had the passenger seat. She smoked throughout these trips, and I hated the smell.

    At that age, I’d take any excuse to make estimates and do minor arithmetic. I’d calculate our gas mileage — figure out useless statistics on things like grocery spending. I’d been hearing an ad campaign about smoking. I can’t remember the details, but basically the ad said, every puff of a cigarette takes some number of minutes off of your life: I think it might have been two minutes per puff. At any rate, I decided to do the math for my grandmother. I estimated the number of cigarettes per days, estimated the number of puffs per cigarette and so on. When I was satisfied that I’d come up with a reasonable number, I poked my head into the front of the car, tapped my grandmother on the shoulder, and proudly proclaimed, “At two minutes per puff, you’ve taken nine years off your life!”

    I have a vivid memory of what happened, and it was not what I expected. I expected to be applauded for my cleverness and arithmetic skills. “Jeff, you’re so smart. You had to have made some tricky estimates, figure out the number of minutes in a year and do some division.” That’s not what happened. Instead, my grandmother burst into tears. I sat in the backseat and did not know what to do. While my grandmother sat crying, my grandfather, who had been driving in silence, pulled over onto the shoulder of the highway. He got out of the car and came around and opened my door and waited for me to follow. Was I in trouble? My grandfather was a highly intelligent, quiet man. He had never said a harsh word to me, and maybe this was to be the first time? Or maybe he would ask that I get back in the car and apologize to my grandmother. I had no experience in this realm with my grandparents and no way to gauge what the consequences might be. We stopped beside the trailer. My grandfather looked at me, and after a bit of silence, he gently and calmly said, “Jeff, one day you’ll understand that it’s harder to be kind than clever.”

    What I want to talk to you about today is the difference between gifts and choices. Cleverness is a gift, kindness is a choice. Gifts are easy — they’re given after all. Choices can be hard. You can seduce yourself with your gifts if you’re not careful, and if you do, it’ll probably be to the detriment of your choices.

    This is a group with many gifts. I’m sure one of your gifts is the gift of a smart and capable brain. I’m confident that’s the case because admission is competitive and if there weren’t some signs that you’re clever, the dean of admission wouldn’t have let you in.

    Your smarts will come in handy because you will travel in a land of marvels. We humans — plodding as we are — will astonish ourselves. We’ll invent ways to generate clean energy and a lot of it. Atom by atom, we’ll assemble tiny machines that will enter cell walls and make repairs. This month comes the extraordinary but also inevitable news that we’ve synthesized life. In the coming years, we’ll not only synthesize it, but we’ll engineer it to specifications. I believe you’ll even see us understand the human brain. Jules Verne, Mark Twain, Galileo, Newton — all the curious from the ages would have wanted to be alive most of all right now. As a civilization, we will have so many gifts, just as you as individuals have so many individual gifts as you sit before me.

    How will you use these gifts? And will you take pride in your gifts or pride in your choices?

    I got the idea to start Amazon 16 years ago. I came across the fact that Web usage was growing at 2,300 percent per year. I’d never seen or heard of anything that grew that fast, and the idea of building an online bookstore with millions of titles — something that simply couldn’t exist in the physical world — was very exciting to me. I had just turned 30 years old, and I’d been married for a year. I told my wife MacKenzie that I wanted to quit my job and go do this crazy thing that probably wouldn’t work since most startups don’t, and I wasn’t sure what would happen after that. MacKenzie (also a Princeton grad and sitting here in the second row) told me I should go for it. As a young boy, I’d been a garage inventor. I’d invented an automatic gate closer out of cement-filled tires, a solar cooker that didn’t work very well out of an umbrella and tinfoil, baking-pan alarms to entrap my siblings. I’d always wanted to be an inventor, and she wanted me to follow my passion.

    I was working at a financial firm in New York City with a bunch of very smart people, and I had a brilliant boss that I much admired. I went to my boss and told him I wanted to start a company selling books on the Internet. He took me on a long walk in Central Park, listened carefully to me, and finally said, “That sounds like a really good idea, but it would be an even better idea for someone who didn’t already have a good job.” That logic made some sense to me, and he convinced me to think about it for 48 hours before making a final decision. Seen in that light, it really was a difficult choice, but ultimately, I decided I had to give it a shot. I didn’t think I’d regret trying and failing. And I suspected I would always be haunted by a decision to not try at all. After much consideration, I took the less safe path to follow my passion, and I’m proud of that choice.

    Tomorrow, in a very real sense, your life — the life you author from scratch on your own — begins.

    How will you use your gifts? What choices will you make?

    Will inertia be your guide, or will you follow your passions?

    Will you follow dogma, or will you be original?

    Will you choose a life of ease, or a life of service and adventure?

    Will you wilt under criticism, or will you follow your convictions?

    Will you bluff it out when you’re wrong, or will you apologize?

    Will you guard your heart against rejection, or will you act when you fall in love?

    Will you play it safe, or will you be a little bit swashbuckling?

    When it’s tough, will you give up, or will you be relentless?

    Will you be a cynic, or will you be a builder?

    Will you be clever at the expense of others, or will you be kind?

    I will hazard a prediction. When you are 80 years old, and in a quiet moment of reflection narrating for only yourself the most personal version of your life story, the telling that will be most compact and meaningful will be the series of choices you have made. In the end, we are our choices. Build yourself a great story. Thank you and good luck!

    來源、想讀中譯本看此:
    <a href=”http://www2.myoops.org/main.php?act=course&amp;id=2486#JB”>http://www2.myoops.org/main.php?act=course&amp;id=2486#JB</a>

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    給我導生的幾句話 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/15/%e7%b5%a6%e6%88%91%e5%b0%8e%e7%94%9f%e7%9a%84%e5%b9%be%e5%8f%a5%e8%a9%b1/ http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/15/%e7%b5%a6%e6%88%91%e5%b0%8e%e7%94%9f%e7%9a%84%e5%b9%be%e5%8f%a5%e8%a9%b1/#respond Sat, 15 Jul 2017 14:55:16 +0000 http://yaya.it.cycu.edu.tw/blog/2017/07/15/%e7%b5%a6%e6%88%91%e5%b0%8e%e7%94%9f%e7%9a%84%e5%b9%be%e5%8f%a5%e8%a9%b1/ 很高興和大家有這個緣份,從這個學期開始擔任你們的導師,而從開始知道要當你們導師的那時候,我就在想,要怎樣才能扮演一個最適(optimal)的導師角色,想想以前自己當學生的時候,也想想現過去擔任導師的經驗,心裡不禁有些惶恐‧

    我唸大學的時候,通常「導師」是一個學期才會見面一次,大部分聚會時都是吃個飯,偶有一次到老師家去烤肉… 我因為曾經擔任過班代,要負責與老師聯絡,所以和老師接觸的機會也就比較多‧我那時就發覺,其實我當時的導師也很希望能多了解學生,而能對學生有些幫助。但限於種種主客觀的因素,往往大學唸畢業了,大多數的學生和導師之間,仍相當的陌生。只有極少數的學生和導師會比較熟一點。

    而我呢,”剛好”是屬於少數的那一種,因為我比較會常到辦公室去找老師,有時問問課業上的問題,有時談談學習上所遭遇的困境,也會聊聊對未來的打算,看看老師的看法如何等等。我漸漸發現,我的導師其實也很健談,後來畢業了,一有機會,就會回學校去看我的老師。現在,變成是他一看我來了,話匣子一打開,反而常常停不下了,有時還很高興有人可以訴訴苦。(老師對學生訴苦? 很難想像吧!)

    每個人對於導生制度可能都有不同的看法及評價。有的人也許覺得還不錯,從小到大唸書時,都有導師 (而且大學的導師有時候會請吃飯! Yeah!);有的人或許會覺得這個制度可有可無,因為不知道導師的定位在哪裡,好像可有可無。

    所以在這裡,我想先說明我自己對於大學導師、學生間關係的看法。我個人比較希望將我即將扮演的導師角色,定位在一個 『年紀比你稍大的朋友』。就好像大家剛進學校時,就有學長、學姊、學友一樣,你也會有一個導師。每一種朋友都扮演不同性質的角色,有的是玩樂型的,有的適合一起用功,有的是酒肉朋友,有的可以聽你的心事,有的是在你有困難的時候,幫你想想辦法的。

    你在當別人的朋友時,也許比較經常扮演某些特定角色,因為個性的關係;但也許對不同的人,你會扮演不同的角色。我覺得,朋友關係的形成,是一種動態互動後的結果。在彼此的互動過程中,建立了某一類型的朋友關係。

    所以我心目中的想法,在擔任各位的導師時,並不希望對各位而言,我只會是某一種『固定類型』的朋友。我反而是希望,在與每個人互動的過程中,能和不同的同學成為不同類型的『年紀比你稍大的朋友』,至於會是哪一種類型,就看你我的互動了。

    楊奕農

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